Talking about Egypt is talking about the sun. Egypt is a country that the whole year is bathing in almost perpetual sunshine. Commonly the days in Egypt are warm or hot and the nights are pleasantly mild or cool. The country only knows two seasons: a mild winter from November – April and a hot summer from May – October. The only differences between the seasons are variations in daytime temperatures and changes in prevailing winds.
Whole Egypt has an arid desert climate, except the small strip of the Mediterranean coastline. Since the climate tends to be dry, especially in Upper Egypt, the heat is more bearable. Weather-wise, the best time to travel to Egypt is March, April, October and November. Otherwise, any time is a good time. It depends on what you want to do.
The average temperature increases moving southward from the Delta to the Sudanese border, where temperatures are similar to those of the open deserts to the east and west.
In the inland desert temperatures vary widely, especially in summer, when they may range from 10 C at night to 45 C during the day. During wintertime temperatures in the desert fluctuate less dramatically, but they can be as low as 0 C at night and as high as 25 C during the day. The weather is colder than most people anticipate, and cold winds blow over the desert at sunrise and sunset.
In the coastal regions, temperatures range between an average minimum of 14 C in winter and an average maximum of 30 C in summer.
The hottest months are June, July and August when maximum temperatures range between 34 C in Cairo and 45 C in Luxor and Aswan.
A phenomenon of Egypt’s climate is the hot wind, in Egypt known as Khamsin that blows across the country from the south or southeast in late winter and early spring. These hot winds usually arrive in April, but occasionally occur in March and May. Unobstructed by geographical features, these winds reach high velocities and carry great quantities of sand and dust from the desert. These sandstorms, often accompanied by winds of up to 140 kilometres per hour, can cause temperatures to rise as much as 20 C in two hours. They are denominated as ‘Winds of fifty days’, because they most commonly prevail during the fifty days preceding and following the vernal equinox. They rarely occur although more than once a week and last for just a few hours at a time.
Rainfall in Egypt is very low. The most humid area is along the Mediterranean coast, where the average annual rainfall is about 200 mm. Precipitation decreases rapidly to the south; Cairo receives on average only about 29mm of rain each year, and in many desert locations it may rain only once in several years!